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:: Volume 12, Issue 3 (Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 2019) ::
2019, 12(3): 409-428 Back to browse issues page
Effect of tire Powders on Dynamic Behavior and Liquefaction Resistance of Saturated Sands
Hadi Bahadori *1, Roohollah Farzalizadeh
1- , h.bahadori@urmia.ac.ir
Abstract:   (3640 Views)
Introduction
When saturated sandy soils are subjected to seismic loadings, the pore water pressure gradually increases until liquefaction happens and settlement occurs during and after an earthquake. The mentioned problem is attributed to rearrangement of grains and redistribution of voids within the soils. Over the years many methods have been presented to increase liquefaction resistance. However, the main methods utilized in liquefaction mitigation are classified as densification, solidification, drainage and reinforcement techniques. Utilizing scrap tires in soils is a kind of soil reinforcement which has a wide range of application.
Waste material expulsion is one of the environmental problems each country faces. Accumulation of non-degradable polymeric materials in landfills has serious environmental consequences. Efforts to find new ways of soil reinforcement have drawn the attention of researchers towards the use of new recycled materials like scrap tires derivatives. Derivatives of scrap tires have different applications in civil engineering such as reinforcing soft soil, as a drainage layer in landfills and as filler materials.
Material and methods
In this paper a series of 1g shaking table tests were performed to investigate on the effect of tire powders-sand mixture in reducing liquefaction potential, settlements after earthquake and pore water generation. Shaking table is made of Plexiglas with inner dimensions of 200×50×70 cm. At bottom of the container a void chamber is made by using a number 200 sieve so that the saturation process could be done gradually and uniformly. A plastic plate was rigidly fixed at the center of container to separate reinforced and unreinforced samples from each other and waterproofing carefully. Therefore two models (reinforced and unreinforced) can be tested at once with the same input acceleration. An absorbing layer of foam with 2 cm thickness was employed to decrease the effect of boundary conditions in order to avoid a direct confrontation model with a rigid container. Firoozkuh No. 161 sand and tire powders were used for the mixture in reinforced side, and pure sand in unreinforced side. In this study 4 mixture ratio (TC=5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) were done. Both of unreinforced (pure sand) and reinforced (tire powders-sand mixture) models were prepared by wet tamping method, in which soil is mixed with 5% water. Each model was prepared in six layers. The required weight for each layer was considered based on the desired density (relative density is zero) and exact volume of the layer. Each portion was placed into the model container and then tamped to reach desired level. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was allowed to pass through the specimen at a low pressure in order to replace the air that trapped in the pores of the specimen. Then water was allowed to flow upward through the bottom of the container at low pressures in order to flush out the CO2 that cause increasing the final degree of saturation. Vibration with approximate uniform amplitude and 2 Hz frequency was applied to the container.
Results and discussion
Results indicate that acceleration within the soil tends to be increased towards the soil surface. On the other hand, after initial liquefaction (that occurred at un-reinforced models), acceleration is decreased due to the increase in excess pore water pressure. Also, it can be seen that the increase in tire powders ratio remarkably reduces the maximum excess pore-water pressure ratio. The settlement of the tire powders-reinforced models is significantly less than the unreinforced models, and with the increase of the tire powder percentage shows a very small increase of volume. The outcomes show that the value of the mean damping ratio versus the shear strain range of 0.01 is increased with the increase in tire powder content. Shear modulus is obtained from the ratio of the difference in maximum and minimum stress and strain developed in desired loop. The maximum of the shear modulus in reinforced models is more than the unreinforced models.
Conclusion
The main aim of the present paper was to investigate the influence of reinforcing a saturated sandy soil with tire powders on the soil dynamic properties and the mitigation of liquefaction potential. The following conclusions were drawn from this research.
- The increase of pore-water pressure leads to a reduction in soil shear stiffness and acceleration amplitude.
- Reinforcing sand with tire powders reduces the excess pore-water pressure ratio because of liquefaction and increases liquefaction resistance. 
- Reinforcing sand with tire powders decreases settlement caused by liquefaction.
- The damping ratio decreases at large shear strain as liquefaction occurs.
- Maximum shear modulus and mean damping ratio of reinforced soil has been increased with increasing tire powder content in the mixture../files/site1/files/123/3BahadoriFarzali.pdf
Keywords: Liquefaction, Tire powders, Damping ratio, Shaking table, Saturated sand, Pore water pressure, Reinforcing
Full-Text [PDF 1322 kb]   (894 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research Paper | Subject: Geotecnic
Received: 2016/06/14 | Accepted: 2017/01/30 | Published: 2018/08/13
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Bahadori H, farzalizadeh R. Effect of tire Powders on Dynamic Behavior and Liquefaction Resistance of Saturated Sands. Journal of Engineering Geology. 2019; 12 (3) :409-428
URL: http://jeg.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2538-en.html


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Volume 12, Issue 3 (Vol. 12, No. 3, Autumn 2019) Back to browse issues page
نشریه زمین شناسی مهندسی Journal of Engineering Geology
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